Paper materials are randomly-oriented-fiber structures that are oftentimes utilized as a packaging structural material. As compared to other packaging materials such as plastics and metals, paper has relatively low cost, excellent biodegradability (even in marine environments), high recyclability, and good strength-to-weight as well as stiffness-to-weight ratios. However, like many other natural materials, paper materials have complex constitutive behavior, including orthtropic elasticity, plasticity, visco-elasticity, creep, delamination, hygro-expansion, spatial material variation, as well as material property sensitivity to moisture and temperature.

Lightness has developed and continue to develop tools that allow for efficient and sufficiently accurate simulation of even the most complex problems in paper physics. These tools allow our customers in the paper and packaging industries to efficiently conduct product development as well as troubleshoot current products.

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